Bridging the Pressure Gap in Transmission Electron Microscopy
The development and application of real in situ TEM is discussed. Starting from traditional high vacuum TEM the evolution via quasi in situ TEM and ETEM to operando TEM is described. Real in situ experiments are now possible in conventional microscopes at pressures above atmospheric and temperatures up to 700 C using nanoreactors.
The newly developed possibilities will be illustrated through live imaging of the Kirkendall effect during oxidation of metallic copper nanoparticles and oscillations of platinum nanoparticle morphology during catalytic CO oxidation.
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: J. F. Creemer, S. Helveg, P. J. Kooyman, A. M. Molenbroek, H. W. Zandbergen and P. M. Sarro: "A MEMS Reactor for Atomic-Scale Microscopy of Nanomaterials Under Industrially Relevant Conditions." J. MEMS 2010, 19, 254.
: S. Janbroers, J. N. Louwen, H. W. Zandbergen and P. J. Kooyman: "Insights into the nature of iron-based Fischer–Tropsch catalysts from quasi in situ TEM-EELS and XRD." J. Catal. 2009, 268, 235.
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